How to reset a computer to factory state

Reset Apple macOS computer (MacBook(R), MacBook Air(R), MacBook Pro(R)) to the "factory" state.

Sign out of Apple iTunes(R).

Open "iTunes", from the menu bar click "Account" - "Authorizations" - "Deauthorize This Computer".
When prompted, enter your "Apple ID" and password, then click "Deauthorize".
Then use "Account" - "Sign out".

Sign out of iBooks(R).

Open "iBooks", from the menu "Store" do "Deauthorize This Computer".
Then from the same menu do "Sign out".

Sign out of App Store(R).

Open "App Store", use the menu to sign out.

Disable "Find My Mac" feature in macOS.

Sign out of iCloud(R).

Choose "Apple" menu - "System Preferences", click "iCloud", and then click the "Sign Out".

Sign out of iMessage(R).

If you're using "OS X Mountain Lion" or later, sign out of "iMessage".
In the "Messages" app, choose "Messages" - "Preferences", then click "Accounts".
Select your "iMessage" account, then click "Sign Out".

Checked sign out of FaceTime(R).

Open Safari(R) web-browser in a "private" window and sign in to your Apple ID there.
Make sure the target computer is not listed among signed in devices.
If it is, do sign it out via a corresponding button.

Unpair your Bluetooth(R) devices from the computer in "System Preferences".

Decrypt the disk by switching off FileVault(R) in macOS.

Disable firmware password.
Boot to Apple "Recovery OS" by restarting your machine and holding down the Command and R keys at startup.
In the top level menu of the "Recovery" choose "Utilities", "Firmware Password" utility.
Turn off the firmware password.

Disable "System Integrity Protection".
Boot to Apple "Recovery OS" by restarting your machine and holding down the Command and R keys at startup.
Launch Terminal from the Utilities menu.
Enter the following commands:

csrutil disable
Restart into the Apple "Recovery OS" the same way.
Check the disabled status of "System Integrity Protection" by running the command in "Terminal":
csrutil status

Reset System Management Controller (SMC).
Shut down the computer.
Plug in the MagSafe(R) or USB-C power adapter to a power source and to your computer.
On the built-in keyboard, press the (left side) shift + control + alt keys and the power button at the same time, and hold for at least 10 seconds.
Release all the keys and the power button at the same time.
Press the power button to turn on the computer.

Reset NVRAM.
Turn on the PC.
Press and hold the command + alt + P + R keys immediately after the startup.
Hold these keys for at least 20 seconds, during which the computer might appear to restart.
Release after you see the startup logo appear for a third time.
Note: for resetting NVRAM firmware password must be disabled!

Disable System Integrity Protection again.
After resetting NVRAM the System Integrity Protection will be enabled.
Use the same procedure described before.

Erase Touch Bar(TM) data (only for computers equipped with Touch Bar) to ensure that all information is cleared from the Secure Enclave in the Touch Bar.
Start up from macOS Recovery by holding down command+R on your keyboard immediately after pressing the power button to switch on your computer.
Choose "Utilities" - "Terminal" in the menu bar.
Type this command in Terminal window:

xartutil --erase-all
Press "Enter", type "yes" when asked if you are sure, and then press "Enter" again.
Finally, do "Terminal" - "Quit Terminal".

Choose boot device by holding "alt" key while powering on.
Or use Apple "Internet Recovery" by holding option+command+R while powering on.
Or just use macOS' "Recovery" system by holding command+R while powering on.

Complete reset of Microsoft(R) Surface(R) Go PC to the "factory" state

Get Microsoft Windows 10 installer on a USB medium.
According to Microsoft's website, you can contact them to order Windows recovery USB drive by mail.
Otherwise, it is necessary to prepare the installer by "softwary" method.

Switch out the "S mode" of Windows.
Open "Settings" - "Update & Security" - "Activation".
In the "Switch" to Windows 10 Home" (or "* Pro") section, use "Go to the Store".
In the Microsoft Store at the "Switch out of S mode", page make use of the "Get" option, and confirm. Use "Start" button to restart the computer.

Disable "fast startup" mode in Windows.
Click "Start" - "Search", and find "Control Panel".
In the "Control Panel" open "Power Options".
Click "Choose what the power buttons do", and then "Change settings that are currently unavailable".
Uncheck "Turn on fast startup (recommended)" option, and make "Save changes".
Use "Start" button to restart the computer.

Complete shut down the computer.
Press and hold the power button until the computer is restarted showing Windows logo, which takes about 20 seconds.
Then release the power button.
Operating system is rebooted.
Now press and hold the power button until the display is turned off, which takes about 10 seconds.
Then release the power button.
Wait for 10 seconds to make sure.
The computer is now completely shut down.

Adjust the UEFI firmware settings.
Press and hold the volume-up button and at the same time, press and release the power button.
After a logo displays, continue to hold the volume-up button.
Release the button when the UEFI firmware settings screen is displayed.

Boot from the installer USB drive.
When installing Windows, choose "complete" installation option.
On its way clean the internal storage by deleting and re-creating partitions.
Carefully disable privacy invading features.

Repeat switching out of "S mode" if applicable, according to the above instructions.

Repeat disabling "fast startup" mode in Windows.
Click "Start" - "Search", and find "Control Panel".
In the "Control Panel" open "Power Options".
Click "Choose what the power buttons do", and then "Change settings that are currently unavailable".
Uncheck "Turn on fast startup (recommended)" option, and make "Save changes".
Use "Start" button to restart the computer.

Apply custom settings to Windows, such as disabling hiding files, disabling Cortana®, disabling OneDrive®.

Search web for additional info using the following queries: "Boot Surface from a USB device", "Creating and using a USB recovery drive for Surface", "Download a recovery image for your Surface".

If memory card got stuck in Surface Go.

With some memory cards (and some Surface Go devices), the memory card might get into the slot and not get released when needed.

To remove the memory card, lift the card with a small tool (screwdriver). Then attach it to a piece of adhesive tape under the card. Gently pull the card out with the tape.

Trademark notices

Apple(R), MacBook(R), MacBook Air(R), MacBook Pro(R), iTunes(R), iBooks(R), App Store(R), iCloud(R), iMessage(R), FaceTime(R), Safari(R), FileVault(R), MagSafe(R), Touch Bar(TM), and macOS(R) are registered trademarks of Apple Inc. in the United States and other countries.
Bluetooth(R) is registered trademarks of Bluetooth SIG, Inc. in the United States and other countries.
Microsoft(R), Windows(R), Surface(R), OneDrive(R) and Cortana(R) are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries.
Linux(R) is registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries.


Copyright (c) 2022 Leonid Dorogin